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IEEE Style

General Guidelines for In-text Citations

With the IEEE-style all sources should be acknowledged with a citation number in square brackets, according to the order in which they appear in the text. The citation number should be placed directly after the reference and within the punctuation. If a reference need to be later repeated, it should receive the same number assigned on its first occurrence, abbreviations such as ibid and op cit. should not be used.


If needed, page, chapter, number of equation etc, may be specified in the reference:

Self-driving cars will increase [1, p. 56], [2, Ch. 9], [3, Ch. 7, pp. 9-10], [4, p. 10, eq. 3]. 

One Source

According to [1], self-driving cars will increase.

Self-driving cars will increase [1].

Andersson [1], arguing that self-driving cars…

Multiple Sources

If multiple sources are cited, the following formats are recommended:

Self-driving cars will increase [1], [2].

Self-driving cars will increase [1]-[2].

Three or more authors

If three or more names are given, write only the last name of the first author followed by et al. ("and others" in latin):

Gambi et al. [6], arguing that self-driving cars…

Reference list:

A. Gambi, T. Huynh and G. Fraser, "Automatically Reconstructing Car Crashes from Police Reports for Testing Self-Driving Cars," in 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceedings (ICSE-Companion), Montreal, QC, Canada, 2019, pp. 290-291, doi: 10.1109/ICSE-Companion.2019.00119


The x-ray computed tomography (CT) has been an indispensable imaging modality relying on multiple x-ray projections of the subject to reconstruct a two dimensional (2D) or three dimensional (3D) distribution of the attenuation coefficients within the subject [1]. Although it is proud of high spatial and temporal resolution [2], CT radiation accounts for a large portion of the ionizing radiation to the population that cannot be underestimated. The patients undergo a CT scan were estimated to be 60 million in 2002 in the United States, which occupied nearly 75% of the radiation exposure and almost 15% of the imaging procedures [3]. The widely accepted As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle urges the medical community to reduce the unnecessary radiation hazard as much as possible [4], [5].


Source: X. Yu, H. Wang, W. Feng, H. Gong, and G. Cao, "cuART: Fine-Grained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique for Computed Tomography Images on GPUs," in 16th IEEE/ACM International Symposium >on Cluster Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGrid), 2016, pp. 165-168, 2016. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2014.2340372.